Linocutting is a technique of scoring the broad side of a piece of linoleum with a knife, cutting away areas which are not designed to be printed. Such areas of cut out sections will be evident in the finished article, but the ink will adhere to the raised parts of the print to form the design.
A process similar to that of the linocutting whereby the artist cuts away sections of a wooden plank which are not designed to be printed. Again, the cut out sections are evident in the finished design, but the printed form is achieved from areas where ink adheres to raised parts.
Wood engraving is carried out on exceptionally hard wood as this surface lends itself well to engraving, as opposed to cutting, a finer line than is achievable with softer woods.
Collography is a print making process whereby the print surface is built up on either a plate or block. The print may be incised onto this and the finished item is known as a collograph.
The design is cut into the plate by driving furrows with a burin, then the plate is printed as above.
The sunken lines are produced directly by diamond-hard tools pulled across the plate. The depth of line is controlled by the artist’s muscle and experience. The method of cutting produces a ridge along the incisions, called burr. This gives the drypoint line the characteristically soft, velvety appearance absent in the clean edged lines of an engraving or etching.
Aquaforte is a technique similar to aquatinting, again used in line etching and featuring coating a copper plate with a ground which is semi resistant to acid. The process follows that of aquatinting with the plate being immersed in acid after white areas, those not to be printed, are painted in a acid resistant varnish. Aquaforte – derived from forte meaning strength – is determined by the depth of image and is used for strong contrast as opposed to the medium contrast achieved in the aquatint process.
Stencilling is a print method whereby a pattern is created by carefully designed gaps, holes or cut out shapes in an object or paper and then applying pigment to the overall surface. The pigment then seeps into the cut out areas resulting in the desired design.